Envisioning HCLE
On this page you will find several essays that attempt to describe the purposes and scope of this project. Please comment on what you read here as one of your contributions to this institution-in-infancy. It will grow and evolve to meet the interests and needs of its stakeholders. Thank you.

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History of Computing for Learning and Education (HCLE)

This is an Original Draft document developed by David Moursund and Ann Lathrop dated 7/18/2013.
Edited and Revised by Liza Loop on 12/11/2013. And again 04/23/2014

This document is based largely on notes taken by Ann Lathrop that summarize key ideas discussed in a June 25, 2013, meeting of Ann Lathrop, Liza Loop, David Moursund, and Sandy Wagner. All four of us are Pioneers in the field of computing in education. The main purpose of the meeting was to discuss Liza Loop’s project on the History of Computing for Learning and Education (HCLE), and the roles each of us might play in advancing this project. Over the years Liza has collected more than 10,000 artifacts relating to the field of computing in education. Most of these are print materials.

David Moursund and Ann Lathrop have expanded the notes and integrated some of their ideas that might help to further define and advance the project. We (Ann and Dave) have made a number of assumptions—and some of them may be wrong. For example, it is assumed HCLE is mainly interested in precollege education and in the United States.
Liza's note: My intention is to look at the use of Computing in Education globally and across all age ranges. UNESCO has been promoting this field since the mid-eighties and the experiences of learners outside the US can contribute importantly to educational practice both inside the US and abroad. Of particular interest are computing projects situated in low-literacy areas and among peoples with little or no access to formal education. It is also informative to explore how people of varying ages respond to computing resources. The phrase “digital native” is used in the 21st century to describe learners who were born into societies where computing devices are ubiquitous. Understanding whether and how digital natives may think differently from those who have not had this exposure will help educators design more effective learning support tools. It may also help us distinguish between age-related and technical environment-related differences. With these goals HCLE will not limit itself to precollege education.
The project could be expanded to include other levels of education and other countries. Alternatively the project could serve as a role model for other countries that are undertaking similar projects.
Pioneering people, projects, organizations, publications, and so on do not always result in easily discernable long-term change. We are interested in both those that have made a very long-term difference in education and those that have come and gone, having had less of a long-term impact on our educational system.

Invitation from Liza Loop

Quoting Liza Loop’s Website:
This is a project to develop a virtual museum documenting the early use of computers to promote learning and education (approximately 1970 to 1990) (Now 1960 to 1990). I have a huge collection of documents and artifacts housed in an office in Milpitas, CA. There are old computers and computer controlled toys, hundreds of programs developed to teach you-name-it, newsletters from early computer clubs, research reports, books and magazines, personal correspondence and much more. Most of this material is not currently available on the web. It should be accessible for scholars, teachers, learners, hobbyists and history buffs. I have started a rudimentary database and begun scanning documents but the task is overwhelming for one person. Please join me to explore the collection, add your personal recollections to the archive, move the scanning forward, design the web interface, get the web site launched, reminisce about old times in computer education and share our experience with the next generation of educational innovators. See HCLE.org

Note: HCLE is distinguishing between computing in education and computers in education. This is not an easy task. The two fields strongly overlap. One major distinction is that the topic of computers focuses primarily on the hardware and secondarily on the software of the electronics industry. It often documents the inventors of hardware and the company brands under which they have been marketed rather that what has been done with these products. In contract, computing focuses on the activities of people around the machines and on the impact of these activities on both individual lives and the greater society. The development and evolution of computers is well documented by museums, science centers and libraries. Names such as Charles Babbage, Alan Turing, Thomas Watson and Steve Jobs are now icons of US history. This is in part because marketing information about computers is easy to come by. Learners and teachers are usually less concerned with their public personae. Corresponding contributors in the field of computing in education, Seymour Papert, Arthur Luehrmann, or Bobby Goodson, for example have had almost no exposure in spite of the immense impact they have had on how learning is supported in both formal and non-formal education today. HCLE’s object is to fill in this void in the historical record.

Ann, David, and Liza recently visited the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California. It is a magnificent computer history museum focusing largely on hardware and some of the major supportive pieces of software. This is in sharp contrast to the HCLE focus on education and people. Currently a working model of Babbage’s automatic computing engine is a feature exhibit. Quoting from this exhibit:

Charles Babbage (1791-1871), computer pioneer, designed the first automatic computing engines. He invented computers but failed to build them. The first complete Babbage Engine was completed in London in 2002, 153 years after it was designed. Difference Engine No. 2, built faithfully to the original drawings, consists of 8,000 parts, weighs five tons, and measures 11 feet long.

While interesting, this exhibit tells us nothing about how the Babbage Engine impacted learning and teaching.

Purpose, Intended Audiences, and Goals


Four of the big ideas in the study of history are causality, legacy, responsibility, and investigation. See http://iae-pedia.org/Digital_Filing_Cabinet/Secondary_School_History. (Note: This Website provides insight into the roles of Information Communication and Technology (ICT) in studying history and what historians do.) We need to hold these “big ideas” in mind as we plan and implement this project. As we explore various aspects of HCLE, we can consider them from the points of view of causality, legacy, responsibility, and investigation.

One approach to the HCLE project is to follow the saying, “Build it and they shall come.” However, that applies to a baseball field, and does not suffice for us. Another approach is the quote:
“Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” (George Santayana; Spanish citizen raised and educated in the United States, generally considered an American man of letters; 1863–1952.)
This is an argument for preserving and teaching about history. It is a helpful statement, but it lacks specificity to fit our project. In figuring out where we are going and what we are trying to accomplish, we might begin with an exploration of possible audiences. These might fall into categories such as:

  • Precollege students with interests in the history of the devices and techniques they now use.
  • Teachers and administrators who are making decisions about what technologies to use in their schools.
  • Parents, grandparents, guardians, and so on who are responsible for guiding others in the use of educational technologies.
  • Teachers of teachers in all K-12 discipline areas who suggest techniques to enhance learning.
  • People who develop and implement educational policy and need to know about the missteps of the past.
  • People and organizations that fund education and want to know what computing techniques have been most effective.
  • College students, especially those in teacher education and the history of technology.
  • Developers of educational materials who need to understand the context of what has been tried before.
  • Developers of computer-based entertainment materials and devices specifically aimed at children and may not have been exposed to some of the older techniques and themes that were effective.
  • Historians and others interested in how ICT has been changing educational content, pedagogy, and assessment. A researcher might want to use our materials as an aid in exploring the possible growing effectiveness of ICT as an aid to improving education.
  • Adults who enjoy recapturing the fun they had learning about computing or via computing
  • Gamers who enjoy "retro" environments.

We can select any of these targeted audiences, think carefully about what we want them to learn about/from HCLE, and then prepare exhibits designed to reach that specific audience. There are many possible ways to design and implement an online “exhibit.” In each case there will be tradeoffs between cost and effectiveness. HCLE needs to develop a “business plan” that will argue persuasively in favor of individuals and institutions providing financial support to HCLE. (This topic is discussed in the Funding and Sustainability Section of this document.)

An “exhibit” might be narrowly focused. Consider the music program of instruction in a typical elementary school. General purpose computers running targeted software are being used in some of these programs to help students learn to compose music. There is considerable free software to support such endeavors, and various Pioneers started working in this field many years ago. In addition, musical instruments that have computers imbedded in them and game machines with music-related software cartridges are finding their way into homes and schools where music is being studied. Visitors to HCLE will be able to try out many early music education programs, read contemporary news and academic articles, contribute personal stories about how they used computing with music before 1990 and join in social media discussions of their HCLE experiences. For some history of computers and music, see http://artsites.ucsc.edu/ems/music/equipment/computers/history/history.html .
General information about elementary school music education is available at nafme.org

The development of computing for music has been going on for decades. Some of the early experiments are evident in today’s versions, some have been lost. Some of what has been lost may be better forgotten but if we don’t recall the failed experiments we are at risk of repeating them. Further, there could be treasures among those lost items as well. HCLE proposes that it will be interesting and useful for an elementary school faculty, parents, and so on to learn about the history of uses of ICT in school music programs. Our challenge is to design an exhibit that conveys this information in an engaging format. What might such an online exhibit look like? An important feature may be the ability to try out the old software in your modern browser. HCLE, in collaboration with the Internet Archive, is working on doing just that.

The music example also applies to art, graphics art, and animation. Beginning with Control Data's PLATO System and continuing with LOGO and on into a variety of more modern programming languages, computer graphics have been available to school-age children for a great many years. Many other graphics software programs exist in addition to the programming languages. See, for example, http://graphicssoft.about.com/od/softwareforkids/Graphics_Software_for_Kids_and_Young_Children.htm.

The steadily improving graphics applied to art, video, and digitizing facilities have massively changed the film industry and contributed significantly to the art world. HCLE will document how professional artists learn to make use of computing tools and how this experience may have changed their thinking as well as their productions.

Once again, we are undertaking a very complex task. Our goal is to help today’s educators and learners avoid repeating errors of the past. To do that we begin by recording some of the history that is not yet available online and pointing to relevant material on other web sites. Through our interpretive commentary surrounding presentation of images and software our exhibits will promote what we consider “good” ICT uses in education.

One very important audience will be preservice and inservice teachers. Our commentary will include what we want every teacher to know about how ICT is changing the content, teaching processes, and assessment of whatever discipline they teach and will encourage each individual teacher to adopt a continually evolving perspective. One approach to this task is to create a project or “exhibit” on the history of how computing has affected content, teaching, and assessment for each discipline taught in our K-12 schools.
The previous paragraph also applies to all special education teachers and all teachers who have special education children in their classes. It also applies to all teachers of teachers. Here, as in many other situations, we have multiple audiences. Our exhibits will also be addressed to parents of children with special needs. In fact, much of the early research on using computing to teach was directed at hard-of-hearing, autistic and other difficult-to-teach populations.

We want parents to gain insight into past and current roles of ICT in education. This is especially important for parents who may want to influence the effective use of ICT in their children’s schools. Equally important is for them to gain knowledge to help them to make better decisions about computer-augmented educational resources in the home.

In total, the potential audience is huge! One measure of success will be counting the number of hits and also the duration of use of these hits for the various segments of our project. However, we need to think more deeply about how to assess the work of the project. Much of this needs to be formative assessment.
The founders of HCLE have no illusions about what a difficult task they have envisioned, how many hundreds of people will have to collaborate to realize only part of this vision, how long it will take or how great the cost. Because of this, the founders anticipate implementation to take place in stages over many years. HCLE may never be “finished”. Instead it should be seen as an evolving work in progress. Today, top priority is being given to:

a) **stabilizing** the documents and software currently in the LO*OP Center collection;
b) cataloging and scanning these materials so that they are accessible online to scholars and other interested parties in advance of formal interpretation and exhibit design;
c) contacting other Ed Tech Pioneers and requesting contribution of their materials before they end up in the waste bin;
d) collection of oral histories and stories from Ed Tech Pioneers and elderly computing users before they pass away.

Editorial Note: Liza has arrived here in her latest editorial efforts. This paper from here to the end is unchanged from the July version prepared by Dave and Ann. Stay tuned for further developments!

Timeline

What to Include

In one part of HCLE we will focus in on computing in precollege education in the United States. Our time period might begin with the completion of the ENIAC computer in 1946, developed on the University of Pennsylvania campus. Quoting from “ENIAC: Celebrating Penn Engineering History:”
Originally announced on February 14, 1946, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), was the first general-purpose electronic computer. Hailed by The New York Times as "an amazing machine which applies electronic speeds for the first time to mathematical tasks hitherto too difficult and cumbersome for solution," the ENIAC was a revolutionary piece of machinery in its day. It was constructed and operated here at The Moore School of Electrical Engineering, now part of the School of Engineering and Applied Science. See http://www.seas.upenn.edu/about-seas/eniac/.
This is a relevant starting point for two reasons: First, from quite early on, computers on campuses attracted the interest of precollege students; Second, the introduction of this entirely new technology turned everyone, young and old, into a learner. Because there were no formal classes in computing it stimulated many people to seek out less formal ways to gain information and share know-how. There was steady growth in the use of computers by youthful students and in the popularity of computer clubs, newsletters and conferences . We will search for stories about how students – both young and old - gained access to and learned to use this and other early computers. We want to know how this experience affected their lives and may have changed the way they thought. We will also inquire about how these early encounters differ from what happens today. There’s no question that using an automated bank teller machine is unlike the awe engendered in a teenager who managed to penetrate the inner sanctum of a large university research facility.

Suggested Beginning of Timeline

Because computing was such an unusual experience clear back in 1946 or still earlier, HCLE is not likely to develop this area extensively. By 1964, the time-shared programming language BASIC first became available. Its initial primary audience was at the college level. However, the availability of BASIC greatly facilitated developments in the field of computing in precollege education and elsewhere. That is why we have extended our time scope back to 1960 and earlier instead of 1970.

FORTRAN

For example, the development of the FORTRAN language happened between 1953-1957. See http://groups.engin.umd.umich.edu/CIS/course.des/cis400/fortran/fortran.html. Quoting from this article:
One of the oldest programming languages, the FORTRAN was developed by a team of programmers at IBM led by John Backus, and was first published in 1957. The name FORTRAN is an acronym for FORmula TRANslation, because it was designed to allow easy translation of math formulas into code.
Often referred to as a scientific language, FORTRAN was the first high-level language, using the first compiler ever developed. Prior to the development of FORTRAN computer programmers were required to program in machine/assembly code, which was an extremely difficult and time consuming task, not to mention the dreadful chore of debugging the code. The objective during FORTRAN's design was to create a programming language that would be: simple to learn, suitable for a wide variety of applications, machine independent, and would allow complex mathematical expressions to be stated similarly to regular algebraic notation. While still being almost as efficient in execution as assembly language. Since FORTRAN was so much easier to code, programmers were able to write programs 500% faster than before, while execution efficiency was only reduced by 20%, this allowed them to focus more on the problem solving aspects of a problem, and less on coding.

The question is, should John Backus be considered a Pioneer in the field of computing in education? Clearly, FORTRAN had a huge impact on the early use of computing in precollege education, and he was a Pioneer in the development of FORTRAN. He has an illustrious history as a leader in the field of Computer and Information Science. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Backus. This question also relates to that of developing themes for the history of computing in education. One theme might be the development and use of programming languages suited to the needs of precollege students. This theme starts with FORTRAN, goes on to BASIC, then Logo, and continues today with a variety of graphics-oriented languages and environments for children and adults. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_educational_programming_languages - Children.

Here is an amusing aside: How much video has been collected relevant to HCLE? Has an effort been made to obtain video and/or the right to repurpose for our use video that has been developed for other purposes. I imagine there are archives of old video that we could draw on. An amusing example would show kids at very old school desks sitting nicely in rows (using old style pens or even quill pens!) and then show kids in a “modern” classroom, each with their own connected tablet computer. Or, videos of the Apple Classroom of Tomorrow student environment. Videos of Seymour Papert working with kids. Videos of Lego Construction kits and materials being used. We certainly could make use of a volunteer who would spend time locating out such video materials and obtaining permission for their use in our project. We need to make use of current methods of indexing such video.

Pioneering People and Activities/Events

IAEPedia defines Pioneers as those people whose work, leadership, and foresight helped greatly in advancing computing in precollege education. However, in focusing on their work and the history of their times, HCLE may also need to include a focus on related topics such as:
1. Hardware Companies. Time-shared computers, microcomputers, telecommunication facilities, the cell phone, and many other types of hardware are inextricably woven into the work of the Pioneers. Do we consider Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak to be Pioneers because of their development of the Apple computer? Learn more about Wozniak at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Wozniak. Also, consider the range of electroniccalculators and their impact on precollege education. See http://www.vintagecalculators.com/html/history_of_electronic_calculat.html. Are the developers of these calculators also Pioneers in our project? (Liza's note: Woz has clearly stated that he was motivated to develop the Apple Computer as a tool for education. Jobs' interests lay more in the business side of the enterprise. Therefore I consider Woz and Ed Tech Pioneer and Jobs just another entrepreneur.)

Long before the development of the early microcomputers, there were mini-computers and mini-computer-based time-shared computer systems that were used relatively extensively in precollege education. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minicomputer and http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/STARS:Rise_and_Fall_of_Minicomputers. We should capture any of this history and some of the Pioneers who were involved. (Liza's note: Digital Equipment Corporation and Hewlett Packard, not to mention IBM, were strong early supporters of computing applications in education. Control Data's PLATO System was one of the most advanced educational application in the early 1970s. The LO*OP Center archive already contains many documents on these topics and is collecting more.)

Then we move on to microcomputers and companies such as Tandy Radio Shack (TRS-80), Commodore (PET), Atari, and Apple. Both the computing hardwareand the people involved (Pioneers) are a very important part of HCLE.
From Apple we also have the donation of 10,000 Apples to schools in California. See http://www.apple.com/euro/pdfs/acotlibrary/rpt10.pdf for the Apple Classroom of Tomorrow project. Undoubtedly there are other historical examples of large donations of hardware and software.
2. Educational Software.
This category includes programming languages, specific instruction-oriented software programs, recreational software, and much more. It includes instructional applications of word processors, spreadsheets, databases, and computer graphics.
For example, consider computer algebra systems and look at the starting dates for various Computer Algebra Systems listed at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_computer_algebra_systems.) All of these programs became very important in precollege computing, and all came via a “trickle down” approach from higher education, business, and research.
(Note: The following information here should be edited carefully in relation to information in K-12 Software Development and Evaluation on p. 35.This section should probably be shortened considerably and information presented in a logical way as it is integrated with information on p. 35.)
The history of educational software development, evaluation, and adoption by school districts and states is an important aspect of HCLE. There is quite a bit of information available on this. Early evaluation guidelines were developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, EPIE, MICROSift, and the California Software Clearinghouse. See http://www.epie.org/html/aboutus.htm for the history of Educational Products Information Exchange (EPIE) and the work of Ken Komoski, a Pioneer in educational software evaluation. See MiscroSIFT Courseware Evaluational from Northwest Regional Labs at http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED226765&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED226765 for a history of MicroSIFT. Don Holtznagel is a Pioneer who led the MicroSIFT work at NWREL.
Ann Lathrop’s work on software evaluation in California, funded by the California Department of Education, evolved into a program open to membership by other states and large districts. These sent representatives to the annual Software Forum in California where the group developed and published the annual Educational Software Preview Guide. Ann also established the requirement that publishers must make software available for free classroom preview before purchase, or the program would not be recommended in the annual Educational Software Preview Guide.
(Note 1: See Ann and Bobby’s book, Courseware in the Classroom: Selecting, Organizing, and Using Educational Software from 1983 for lists of publishers, review journals, sample evaluation forms, recommended software, etc.)
(Note 2: Evaluation criteria for CD-ROM and DVD were developed by the California Software Clearinghouse in 1990-91 and published by the parent California Instructional Technology Clearinghouse. As far as Ann knows, these were the first evaluation guidelines for these new media.)
One interesting aspect is the regionalization versus a national or international approach. In the earlier years, individual teachers or schools selected the software programs to use for instruction. Gradually districts and then states began to evaluate and select software to meet their instructional goals/standards. Educational software became part of the statewide adoption process in many states and publishers began to tailor their software programs to meet these state requirements.
3. Organizations. The California Computer-Using Educators (CUE), the Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC), and the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) are but three of a large number of state, regional, and national/international professional organizations that have been instrumental in HCLE. Moreover, most of these organizations were initially developed and led by people we now regard as Pioneers. (Note: Expand this discussion to include other states with active groups.)
ACM and the IEEE Computer Society also have been involved at the K-12 level. ACM has played a significant role in precollege education. At one time it had both an elementary schools committee and a secondary schools committee. It has long had a committee focusing on computer science at the precollege level. David Moursund was involved in some of these committees and may have copies of some of their early reports.
Professional associations, beginning with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, developed their own evaluation criteria and published software reviews.
(Note 1: When did these associations begin to feature conference sessions on instructional software applications for their discipline?)
(Note 2: We probably need to divide this heading into Organizations like CUE and Professional Associations like ISTE and NCTM.)
(Note 3: What is the association that Vicki works for and edits their newsletter?)
4. State and National Initiatives. Funding for these initiatives has come from individuals, charitable organizations, companies (both non-profit and for-profit), state governments, and the federal government.
5. Software Publishers. MECC is a great source of Pioneers. See http://www.mecc.co/history/. Quoting from that document:
As one of the largest software producers of the 1980's, the MECC definitely deserves mention in the annals of history of computing.
With its ever popular Oregon Trail and Number Munchers games, the MECC has out lasted the Apple II computer by more than twenty years and continues to be a major part of many educational programs today.
MECC began in an old warehouse in Minneapolis, Minnesota as part of the state of Minnesota's educational software push. While the state was the sole sponsor of the company, it was designed so that it could expand easily. While the initial events which led to the creation of the company began in 1971 with the creation of Oregon trail, the MECC was officially started in 1973.
Other Pioneers founded and developed the early publishing companies with their emphasis on critical thinking software: The Learning Company, Davidson, Sunburst, etc. (Note: Add to this list and also add any associated names not already there to the list of Pioneers.)
6. Magazines and Journals. A number of these were very influential: The Computing Teacher (now Leading and Learning with Technology), T.H.E. Journal, Educational Technology, Classroom Computer Learning, Electronic Learning, Educational Computer, Educational Computing, Digest of Educational Software Reviews, Calculators/Computers Magazine, People's Computer Company, Dr. Dobbs Journal, etc.
The history of some of these publications goes back to the earlier audio-visual/AV days with evaluations focusing on films, filmstrips, recordings, etc. Many of the magazines/journals published evaluations of educational software.
(Note 1: Check accuracy of these titles and add others, including influential state association publications. Probably divide these into categories of professional association journals and commercial magazines.)
(Note 2. Emphasize role in software evaluation.)
(Note 3: We need to check on what ISTE has in its collection of old stuff. When David Moursund retired from ISTE, he donated a couple of filing cabinets of stuff, including some old copies of Calculators/Computers Magazine and The Oregon Computing Teacher.)
7. Events. Computer Conference on the Undergraduate Curriculum, after 10 years of NSF support, became NECC (National Educational Computing Conference) in 1979. During the 10 years before NECC, the National Science Foundation funded the CCUC (Computer Conference Undergraduate Curriculum).
West Coast Computer Faire. Computer Graphics Conferences. ACM conferences. CUE and other state association conferences.
Conferences of professional associations with a strong focus on instructional computing (see Note 1 under Organizations.)
8. Free Information. This is a biggie. For example, consider the Wikipedia, or more generally a great deal of the content of the Web. Do we consider the developers of the Web to be Pioneers? See a file:localhost/history of the Web at http/::www.webfoundation.org:vision:history-of-the-web:. Or, going back further, what about the Internet and its developers? See http://www.internetsociety.org/ , The Internet and Web certainly have had a major impact on education. There are a large number of people and organizations that provide free, high-quality, good information useful to teachers and their students on the Web. The Information Age Education (IAE) Website is one example.
9. Computer-Assisted Learning. How do we classify this? Is it a theme (see a discussion of themes in the next section)? There is considerable research and other literature on Computer-Assisted Instruction. See http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/26657/0000201.pdf;jsessionid=19E59B9C296DC9850F3BEDE792C44F31?sequence=1.
10.Books and Authors.// Ann asks: What about books and their authors? Some important books had strong impacts and their authors were true Pioneers.


Possible Themes
(Note: This segment written by Dave Moursund.)
We have not yet defined what constitutes a theme. At our initial meeting, we spent quite a bit of time identifying some possible unifying themes that fall under the HCLE rubric. However, we did not have time to explore any of them in detail. We are looking for themes that were developed and advanced over a number of years. Individual people, our “Pioneers,” helped in the development and early advancement of these themes. Some themes have existed longer than others, some early ones still exist, and others have faded away. If a theme has faded away, we can explore whether its need also faded away and/or has it been replaced by an approach more suited to current times.
So, here I will list some of the themes that were suggested along with some that I have thought about now and in the past. From these we may be able to develop a definition of what we want to consider to be a theme and to select some themes that seem particularly important to include in our initial work.
To get us started, think about goals of education. Many have served us for a long time. Appendix 2 of this document is a list of goals developed by David Moursund and Dick Ricketts that is available at http://i-a-e.org/iae-blog/entry/general-educational-goals-in-the-united-states.html.
With a list such as this as a starting point, think of Information and Communication Technology(ICT) in terms of:
  1. Aiding in accomplishing a widely agreed upon set of goals for precollege education. We can think in terms of ICT helping us to accomplish traditional goals faster, better, and in a more long-lasting manner. We can measure or evaluate this work using
  2. traditional methods of measuring the accomplishment of our goals in education. In addition, ICT can be used to develop and implement better measurements of the accomplishment of traditional goals.
2. As a basis for changing some of the goals. Because of ICT, a goal might decrease in value or emphasis, or increase in value and emphasis. Some of the changes might be quite large.
3. As a basis for creating new goals.
Thus, we might have an over-riding theme of accomplishing roles of ICT in 1-3. We would then look at people (Pioneers) and others factors (technology, zeitgeist, etc.) that contributed significantly to accomplishing parts of 1-3 over a period of time.
As an example of the “etc.” consider problems of sustainability and global warming. These are major problems facing the people of our world today. We might want our educational system to have specific goals related to these issues. ICT is a very important aid in studying, representing, and working on solving these problems; computer modeling and simulation is a very important tool to use. So, we can look at the HLCE of computer modeling and simulation being integrated into our educational curriculum. There we would find the work of Lud Braun (one of our Pioneers) who developed the materials known as the Huntington Project. The work of TERC is particularly important here from the point of view of how long ago it got started. See the Pioneer Robert Tinker and the Websites http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_F._Tinker and http://iae-pedia.org/Robert_Tinker.
Let’s try another example. Many people have thought for a long time that our math education system is not as good as it could/should be. A variety of ideas of how to improve this situation include such things as getting girls much more involved in math, using calculators and computers that can “do” some aspects of math, developing computer-assisted learning materials and games that can help teach some aspects of math, increasing the math requirements to graduate from high school, providing tutors for students doing poorly in math, doing brain research on dyslexia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia, more staff development, better math books and math curriculum, development of computer algebra systems, changes in standards (nowadays, the Common Core State Standards), and so on.
To me this suggests that we can select any academic discipline of study and examine it from the point of view of the HCLE project. How has ICT been involved in efforts to improve education within each particular discipline? In writing, for example, this would lead us to a theme of using computing as an aid to writing. In school libraries, this would lead us to a theme of the use of computers for information storage and retrieval.
In higher-order thinking and problem solving within any particular discipline, we could have the theme of roles of ICT as an aid to representing and solving problems. Artificial intelligence would be part of this theme. A current term for this particular area is Computational Thinking. See http://iae-pedia.org/Computational_Thinking.
Let me now take a different type of example. The entertainment industry has been greatly changed by ICT. We have substantial research on how patterns of time use by children (and adults) have been significantly changed by ICT-based entertainment. The intrinsic motivation, instant and longer-term gratification, and social interactions inherent to these forms of entertainment have had a significant impact on students—and their informal and formal education. So, the impact of electronic games and other forms of electronic entertainment on K-12 education could be an HCLE theme.
The need for staff development and ICT-related support of educators cuts across all school curricula. Thus, we could have a theme of non-profit and for-profit organizations working to provide support to teachers, school administrators, and so on. ISTE, California CUE, and a very large number of non-profit organizations have made huge contributions. We could have a HCLE theme based on professional societies. We should include non-profit store-front learning centers, educational materials being made available free on the web and in other manners, and so on. And, of course, we have the teacher training institutions—both non-profit and for-profit— and the large amounts of money that has been poured into improving the ICT aspects of such education. The PTTT program Colleges of Education is a good example. My recollection is that Linda Roberts played a key role in making this happen and this, by itself, would qualify her as a very important Pioneer.
Themes and Exhibits
Some of my current thoughts on possible themes:
1. Providing the facilities needed to appropriately support students, teachers, and others in implementing and accomplishing their goals for computing and learning in education. Facilities include hardware, software, connectivity, and space. How about increasing incentives and/or decreasing disincentives? For example, a disincentive is testing in which students are not allowed to use either computers or their computing in education knowledge and skills.
Here is an example. A special education group in Oregon sued the state because it did not allow students with certain types of handicapping conditions to use a word processor in state assessment. The group won their suit. Evidently Oregon was one of the early states (perhaps the earliest?) to make this provision for certain students. What is the history of allowing use of calculators and word processors in assessment? Is it limited to special education only?
I dealt with the same problem in the doctoral program I established in the field of computers in education in the College of Education at the University of Oregon. Eventually my students were allowed to use a word processor in writing their preliminary exams. When it was discovered that students were using a spelling checker, this caused a big uproar. As late as 1987, at the University of Oregon, students were not allowed to use a word processor in writing the final copy of their dissertations; the dissertations had to be typed!
2. Providing an enriched intellectual and cognitive development environment. Students learn best in a hands-on environment in which they learn by doing. Quoting Confucius, "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand."
ICT helps to provide such environments. This is potentially a very large theme. For example, consider how connectivity and the Web have made it possible for students to routinely access the Internet, the world’s largest library. Accessing such a library is a hands-on activity.
Computer modeling and simulation, especially in the sciences, provides a good example. Microcomputer-Based Laboratory in an important part of this. Read about MBL at http://physicsed.buffalostate.edu/danowner/whyMBL.html. Note Pioneer names such as Bob Tinker, David Sokoloff, R.K. Thornton, and David Vernier. MBL, all by itself, is an important theme. A recent Google search of microcomputer-based Laboratory returned more than 1.2 million hits. See http://www.physics.umd.edu/perg/papers/redish/mbl/mbl1.html and http://www.colorado.edu/physics/EducationIssues/papers/CCKe010103.pdf.
Computer programming is a hands-on activity. Project-based learning has been considerably enriched by ICT. See http://iae-pedia.org/Project-Based_Learning. Examples include: Bringing children and parents together to do educational activities. See Bringing engineering (robots and Lego logo construction kits) into education. Bringing a new approach to art and to music in education.
There is now a long history of teaching computer and information science (Including AP Computer Science) at the precollege level.
3. Reaching out to those who are underserved in 1 and 2 above. Perhaps we will address underserved populations, special needs populations, and talented and gifted populations in each of the theme areas.
4. Improving/supporting staff development at the preservice and inservice level.
5. Highlighting the changing roles of humans as teachers, computers as teachers, and the combination of the two as teachers. Focus on the emergence of hybrid teaching/learning environments. We have gone from simple drill and practice to Highly Interactive Intelligent Computer-assisted Learning (HIICAL) systems.
6. Computational thinking. Developing an educational system that builds on and appropriately integrates the capabilities of human brains and computer brains. See http://iae-pedia.org/Computational_Thinking.
7. Information storage and retrieval. Changes in libraries and in the ways we retrieve information. Increasing intelligence of the search and retrieval systems. Open content libraries. Free online journals and videos. The emerging field of data mining.
8. Changes in communication. Telephones existed for a long time before computers came on the scene. Earth satellites, fiber optics, cell phones, and social networking systems have all had a major impact on education.
9. Computerized machines to aid our minds and bodies in representing and solving a wide range of problems. Think of robots as a combination of an aid to our physical capabilities and mental capabilities. The whole field of artificial intelligence can be included here or as a separate theme.
10.Computing within a specific discipline. For example, how has math changed because of computers? Judy Mathis Johnson did a dissertation on this. There are huge variations in the extent to which ICT has or has not been integrated into the content of each discipline.
11.ICT and women. See http://iae-pedia.org/Women_and_ICT.
12.Empowering teachers. Seymour Sarason (1990) wrote a very poignant book titled The Predictable Failure of Educational Reform. In this book he argued that unless an educational reform effort focuses on empowering teachers and their students, the reform effort will fail.
13.Empowering students. The word processor, spell checker, Web, cell phone, and social networking are all examples of ICT empowering students. Many students have become empowered through developing skills in computer programming, hardware and software maintenance, helping their peers and adults, and so on. Sometimes such students are called geeks or nerds—perhaps by those who are envious.
14.Other ideas. A number of major unifying ideas (that we might consider as possible themes) are presented in the article:
Molnar, Andrew (06/01/97). “Computers in Education: A Brief History.” T.H.E. Journal. Retrieved 6/30/2013 from http://thejournal.com/articles/1997/06/01/computers-in-education-a-brief-history.aspx.
Here are some of the topics Molnar’s article covers. His focus is on the confluence of major changes in the world:
a. The Global Economy.
b. The Scientific Information Explosion.
c. The Emergence of Cognitive Science.
d. New Educational Demands. (This includes increasing worldwide competition.)
e. The Early Pioneers.
f. Computer-Assisted Instruction. In 1959, at the University of Illinois, Donald Bitzer began PLATO, the first, large-scale project for the use of computers in education. The several thousand-terminal system served undergraduate education as well as elementary school reading, a community college in Urbana, and several campuses in Chicago. Read about Donald Bitzer at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Bitzer.
g. Micro Worlds. Seymour Papert, computer-based simulations, and later automated toys, and so on built from Lego Logo materials.
h. The Microcomputer and Research on the Effectiveness of Computer-Based Education.
i. Intelligent Tutors and Intelligent Tools. Both are parts of new technology-based education.
j. The article also discusses the general topic of Management of Complexity. The Information Age Education (IAE) Newsletter is currently publishing a sequence of issues on complexity. See http://i-a-e.org/newsletters/IAE-Newsletter-2013-115.html.
k. Distance Education.
l. The Supercomputer and Telecommunications.
m. Project-based Learning. See Robert Tinker and TERC (http://www.terc.edu/), articles and book by David Moursund, and Edutopia (http://www.edutopia.org/).


Funding and Sustainability
HCLE is a multiphase project. Here is a brief outline of possible phases and estimates of needed funding
Phase 1. This is all of the work that has been done prior to the June 25, 2013, meeting of Ann Lathrop, Liza Loop, David Moursund, and Sandy Wagner. Liza Loop has been devoting a substantial part of her professional life to this project. She initiated the HCLE project and has funded initial work on the project. David Moursund has written a considerable amount of materials that are relevant to the HCLE project. See http://iae-pedia.org/Main_Page. Liza Loop and David Moursund have each provided their own funding (and “sweat equity”) for this initial phase.
In very brief summary we currently have:
• Liza Loop’s very large collection of (physical) artifacts that need to be catalogued and preserved. Some need to be scanned. Liza is working on this aspect of the project and on acquiring additional artifacts (such as journals, magazines, books, and so on).
• A large amount of writing currently available free through Information Age Education.
• HCLE Websites.
• The four of us (and more Pioneers that Liza Loop has identified) are involved in the project.
  • A huge amount of material available on the Web and from other sources.
Phase 2. (Two years???) This phase consists of: gathering, finding, acquiring, scanning (as needed), creating, and organizing materials; building our people resources; and beginning to clarify and build our financial resources. During this phase we will:
• Develop a relatively detailed plan for the (initial phases) of the project and gain increasing insight into the longer term future of the project.
• Identify and collect great deal more information and information sources.
• Recruit additional volunteer help and contributors.
• Develop an initial computer-based infrastructure that can appropriately accommodate the work of Phase 2 and that also lays the groundwork for subsequent phases.
• Make as much material as is reasonably possible available on the Web and also available in an archive of physical artifacts (to be located where?). We will organize/store the Web materials as a database that is easily searched.
• Make estimates of needed financial resources and begin to explore alternative approaches to obtaining these resources.
(Note: Liza Loop estimates that Phase 2 will cost $100,000 a year. (This does not count the “sweat equity” of time contributed by Liza Loop, David Moursund, and others.)
Phase 3. (Three years???) Development of some initial theme-based “exhibits.” We might think of them in terms of what is currently being done in high-quality computer-assisted teaching/learning environments. For discussion purposes, we might focus on describing the possible design of what a $100,000 exhibit might be. Budget might be $300,000 a year.
Phase 4. (Three years???) Continue to develop “exhibits” as described in Phase 3. Begin to develop Highly Interactive, Intelligent, Avatar-based (HIIA) exhibits. Users can be avatars in a Holodeck-like or Second Life-like environment. These HIIA exhibits will be theme-oriented but quite different from the exhibits of Phase 3. For discussion purposes, we might want to think about what type of exhibit can be created for $250,000 dollars. A slightly different approach is to ask what would it cost to build a high-quality HIIA exhibit that a typical user will explore and participate in for 15 to 30 minutes. As AI continues to improve, a HIIA will become more and more database driven, able to draw upon the total project database and other databases in real time. A “far out” concept is that a user wanders through and interacts with the minds and thought processes of the great Pioneers as well as the total project accumulation of information. Budget might be $1 million a year.
Phase 5. (Three or more years???) Continue to develop HIIA exhibits. Budget might continue at $1 million a year until we have a relatively fully functioning project.
Phase 6. Very long-term continuation at a maintenance and moderate growth level. One way to think about this is terms of keeping up with the changing times and technology. It also involves revisiting and reinterpreting the past in view of the changing present and perceived future. Because of the continuing changes of the field of HCLE, new Pioneers are continually arriving on the scene. Liza Loop estimates that this will cost $500,000 a year in current dollars. If we figure our endowment can earn 3% above inflation, this earning rate means that the endowment needs to be approximately $20 million. Long this -term sustainability also means we need to have a solid Board of Directors for the 501 (c)(3) Corporation and a good way of keeping this Board vital and committed.
We need an initial decision as to whether all of the HCLE materials, projects, and so on will be made available completely free, whether some will contain ads to help defray expenses, and whether some might have “entrance and use” fees. That is, we need to develop a realistic and viable financial model. How much of our initial and continuing efforts will be devoted to fund raising?


Tentative Task Assignments
Ann Lathrop
Compile list of suggested Pioneers and send it to others. Everyone will add email addresses and phone numbers that they have for names on list and return list to Ann.
Edit and distribute notes from meeting.
Work with Vicki Bigham to get Texas information, publisher information, other ideas she has.
Liza Loop
Enter materials from Ann into her catalog.
Obtain a scanner or send Ann information on buying a OCR scanner. Dave will also help explore this topic. We want a scanner that has high quality OCR capabilities to scan a document and change it into a text file and/or a scannable PDF file.
Explore potential internal and external links within website and to other websites.
Work on ways to encourage input from other countries around the world.
Ann added: It would be helpful for Liza to articulate for all of us how you see this Pioneers/History of Computing for Learning and Education project fitting in with your overall goal of a Virtual Museum.
Work on securing external funding.
David Moursund
Join LOOP Center Board and HCLE Board. (Liza Loop will arrange for this to occur.)
Identify IAE materials relevant to HCLE project.
Brainstorm with Liza on finding initial and long-term funding for project.
Work with Liza on her “vision paper” and on some possible phases.
Sandy Wagner
Add to list of Pioneer names and possibly identify specific persons associated with other state organizations.
Look at home for any articles or other written materials on history of CUE.
Check whether any CUE Board members or other persons have back issues of the CUE Newsletter. Or do you think the current CUE leadership would help us with this? Who do we know well who is still active in CUE?


Appendix 1: Current List of Suggested Pioneers in Computing for Learning and Education
Here is our current combined list of “Pioneer” names. There are somewhat over 115 names on the current list. As we work with and expand this list we will want to add contact information (for those who are still alive), and links to sources of information about each person. This includes links to their publications, presentations, and so on. Here is a question worth considering: Are we going to use 1990 as a cut-off date, or do we want to consider more recently emerging Pioneers? As the world changes, there is a continuing need for Pioneers. So, new Pioneers are continually coming on to the scene. At what date do we quit adding to our list?
Acheson, Keith. See http://iae-pedia.org/Keith_Acheson.
Ahl, David H.
Albrecht, Robert (Bob)
Anderson, G. Ernest (Ernie)
Andree, Richard V.
Armstrong, Sara
Atchison, William F. (Bill)
Bakker, Harry
Best, Anita
Bialo, Ellen
Bigham, Vicki Smith. Phone 281-866-9728
Billings, Karen
Bitter, Gary
Bitzer, Donald (Don)
Bork, Alfred (Al)
Bransford, John
Braun, Lud
Brittain, David
Brown, Dean
Brown, John Seely
Brumbaugh, Kenneth (Ken)
Bull, Glen L.
Cappo, Marge
Carroll, Tom
Cerf, Vinton
Charp, Sylvia
Chen, Milton www.glef.org
Contreras, Vince
Cooney, Stuart
Crane, Terry
Davidson, Jan
Dede, Christopher (Chris)
DeWert, Marjorie.
DiSessa, Andrea
Enenstein, Bob
Engelbart, Douglas (Doug)
Feurzeig, Wallace (Wally)
Finkel, LeRoy
Fisher, Glenn. gfisher@mac.com
Fisher, Jane
Fox, Annie
Goodson, Bobby (Barbara)
Grant, Wayne
Hamilton, Bev
Hawkins, Jan
Hickman, Craig. See http://red-green-blue.com/kid-pix-the-early-years/.
Hoffman, Irwin J.
Holtznagel, Don
Horwitz, Paul
Hunter, Beverly
Hurley, Kathy
Johnson, David C.
Johnson, Judy Mathis
Jongejan, Tony
Kahn, Robert (Bob) A.
Kahn, Ted M.
Kay, Alan. See http://iae-pedia.org/Alan_Kay.
Kelly, Peggy
Koetke, Walter
Komoski, Ken
Kopec, Anita
Kosel, Marge
Kurshan, Barbara
Kurzweil, Ray
LaFrenz, Dale
Lathrop, Ann
Lemke, Cheryl
Licklider, Joseph
Lidtke, Doris
Linn, Marcia
Long, Harvey
Loop, Liza
Luehrmann, Arthur (Art)
Marks, Bonnie
Means, Barbara
Melmed, Arthur
Molnar, Andrew (Andy)
Moursund, David (Dave)
Negroponte, Nicholas
Nelson, Theodor (Ted)
O’Brien, Tom
Olds, Henry
Papert, Seymour
Perl, Teri
Piestrip, Anne
Poirot, Jim
Rawitch, Don
Roberts, Linda
Robnett, Carl (J.C.R)
Rogers, Al
Roupe, Dick
Sakai, Brian
Saylor, Bev
Schloat, Warren
Simon, Herbert
Snyder, Tom
Sokoloff, David
Soloway, Elliot
Stauffer, Carolyn
Suppes, Patrick (Pat)
Talley, Sue
Taylor, Robert (Bob)
Terkel, Sherry
Thomas, Lajeane
Thornburg, David
Thornton, R.K.
Tinker, Robert (Bob)
Vaille, John
Vernier, David
Wagner, Sandy (William)
Wenn, Richard
Wise, Art and/or NCATE
Whitney, Rusty
Withrow, Frank
Yoder, Sharon
Zamora, Ramon
Zinn, Karl



Appendix 2: Goals of Precollege Education in the United States
The content given below comes from http://iae-pedia.org/Goals_of_Education_in_the_United_States. The list of goals has been divided into three categories: Conserving Goals, Achieving Goals, and Accountability Goals. In most societies, education has a major goal of conserving and preserving the culture and values of the society. Interestingly, this tends to create some stress between Conserving Goals and Achieving Goals. As students gain increasing knowledge and skills, they sometimes rebel against the conservative nature of schools and their society.
Conserving Goals
G1. Security: All students are safe from emotional and physical harm. Both formal and informal educational systems must provide a safe and secure environment designed to promote learning.
Comment: In recent years there has been a great deal of media coverage about potential physical and emotional harm that students may encounter in school. This includes bullying, shootings, access to inappropriate information through use of the Internet.
G2. Values and Diversity: All students respect individual differences and the traditional values of the family, community, state, nation, and world in which they live.
Comment: A good summary is provided in the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. See www.ohchr.org. Quoting from the document:
Reaffirming the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations with regard to the promotion and encouragement of respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion,
Reaffirming also that every individual and every organ of society shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Reaffirming further that everyone has the right to education, and that education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity, and enable all persons to participate effectively in a free society and promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations and all racial, ethnic or religious groups, and further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace, security and the promotion of development and human rights…
G3. Sustainability: All students value a healthy and sustainable local, regional, national, and global environment, and they knowingly work to improve the quality of the environment.
Comment: The following is quoted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainability:
…since the 1980s sustainability has been used more in the sense of human sustainability on planet Earth and this has resulted in the most widely quoted definition of sustainability as a part of the concept of sustainable development, that of the Brundtland Commission of the United Nations on March 20, 1987 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brundtland_Commission): “sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
At the 2005 World Summit on Social Development it was noted that this requires the reconciliation of environmental, social equity, and economic demands—the "three pillars" of sustainability…
Achieving Goals
G4. Full Potential: All students are knowingly working toward achieving and increasing their healthful physical, mental, and emotional lifelong potentials.
Comment: Notice the emphasis on students “knowingly” working to increase their potentials. The goal is to empower students to empower themselves to develop life-long physical and mental habits that promote and sustain personal well being.
G5. Basic Skills: All students gain a working knowledge of speaking and listening, observing (including visual literacy), reading and writing, mathematics, logic, and storing, retrieving, and communicating information. All students learn to solve problems, accomplish tasks, deal with novel situations, and carry out other higher-order cognitive activities that make use of these basic skills.
Comment: Basic skills tend to have long (perhaps lifelong) value. However, new developments can change existing basic skills and add new basic skills. For example, the fluent use of Information and Communications Technology systems is an emerging basic skill.
G6. Setting and Achieving Personal Learning Goals: An alternate title for this goal is Self-assessment and Self-improvement. All students learn to self-assess, set personal goals based on these assessment, and work to achieve these personal goals.
Comment: This goal focuses on a person taking personal responsibility for their own education. Such knowledge and skills, along with self-understanding of one's interests, intrinsic motivation, drives, and ambition, can serve a person through their lifetime.
G7. General Education: All students have appreciation for, knowledge about, and understanding of a number of general areas of education, including:
Artistic, intellectual, scientific, social, and technical accomplishments of humanity.
Cultures and cultural diversity.
Geography.
Governments and governance.
Health and medicine.
Nature in its diversity and interconnectedness.
Religions and religious diversity.
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).
Social science.
Comment: A good education is a balance between breadth and depth, and it varies considerably from person to person. “Try to learn something about everything and everything about something.” (Thomas H. Huxley; English writer; 1825–1895.)
G8. Lifelong Learning: All students learn how to learn and how to make effective use of what they learn. They have the inquiring attitude and self-confidence that allows them to pursue life’s options. They have the knowledge and skills needed to deal effectively with changes that affect them.
Comment: The pace of technology-based change is quickening, and the total collection of human knowledge is growing very rapidly. All students need to develop lifelong habits of mind that help them to gain the knowledge, skills, and understanding needed to effectively accommodate ongoing change. Some current areas of rapid change include genetics (genome projects), nanotechnology, cognitive neuroscience, medicine, and computer technology.
G9. Problem Solving: All students make use of decision-making and problem-solving skills and tools, including the higher-order skills of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. All students pose and solve problems, making routine and creative use of their overall knowledge and skills, and currently available technologies.
Comment: Recognizing, understanding, clearly communicating, and effectively working to solve problems lie at the heart of each academic discipline. See http://iae-pedia.org/Problem_Solving.
G10. Productive Citizenship: All students act as informed, productive, and responsible members of countries, organizations to which they give allegiance, and as members of humanity as a whole.
Comment: The world is growing smaller. In some sense, each person is a citizen of the world, one or more countries, one or more states/provinces, and so on. During a lifetime, a person is apt to hold a variety of jobs and/or pursue a variety of careers. A person is apt to belong to a variety of organization and/or groups.
G11. Social Skills: All students interact publicly and privately with peers and adults in a socially acceptable and positive fashion.
Comment: Information and Communication Technology has brought us new forms of communication and social interaction, including desktop conferencing, picture phones, instant messaging, email, and groupware.
G12. Information and Communication Technology (ICT): All students have appropriate knowledge and skills for using our rapidly changing ICT as well as related technologies relevant to their lives and our world.
Comment: ICT is both a discipline in its own right and a driving force for change in education and in many different areas of technology, science, and research. Computational thinking is becoming a standard complement of each academic discipline. See http://iae-pedia.org/Computational_Thinking.
Accountability
G13. Assessment: The various components of an educational system that contribute to accomplishing the goals (such as those listed above) are assessed in a timely and appropriate manner. The assessments provide formative, summative, and long-term impact evaluative data that can be used in maintaining and improving the quality of the educational system.
Comment: Accountability and assessment are strongly intertwined. In the past two decades, the issue of authentic assessment has received a lot of attention. As ICT is more thoroughly integrated into curriculum content, authentic assessment of student learning becomes a new challenge to educational systems. Electronic portfolios are gradually increasing in importance as an aid to authentic assessment.
G14. Accountability: All educational systems are accountable to key stakeholder groups, including:
Students.
Parents and other caregivers of the students.
Teachers, administrators, and all employees and volunteers in educational systems.
Voters, taxpayers, and funding agencies.
Employers.
Comment: Accountability includes gathering and effectively using information from formative, summative, and long-term residual impact assessments that are fair, reliable, valid, and timely. It is difficult to make changes to our educational system because of the need to address the widely divergent interests of the various stakeholders. However, this democratic approach to our educational system is one of its strengths.
An educational system is a compromise among known teaching and learning theories, current and other possible teaching practices, and stakeholders. The complexity of an educational system and its compromises makes it difficult to substantially improve the system. However, there are powerful change agents at work, such as Information and Communication Technology, research in cognitive neuroscience, and national and global competition. We have the technology and research base to substantially improve education.


Appendix 3: Ann Lathrop’s Meeting Notes
(Note from Ann: These are quite rough and are “as first typed up.” See p. 20 instead.) By the way, what is the new term for “typing”?
The following were general topics of discussion.
Technology changes the nature of a discipline – some things are gained, other lost.
• “representing and solving problems” “teach for transfer of learning”
• “transfer skills from gaming into real life, e.g., school, driving”
Information overload.
Information access and retrieval, and online copyright issues.
Teaching for critical thinking / evaluation of information (especially online?)
Teaching concepts vs. teaching to solve problems by rote.
Teaching students problem solving in school in an ICT environment just as they will solve problems in the real world.
In terms of ICT, what is changing in education, what is not changing, what should be changing?
What do teachers need to know in terms of ICT for the 21st century?
What kind of classroom learning environment do we envision for students today?
How will today’s learners continue to tap into the money stream, i.e., employment?
The Secretary of Education, talks about “Education for college and careers” but education is much more than that.
How is ICT changing the learning process, changing education in general?
Possible Strategy
Remember that our first task is to compile a History of Computing in Learning and Education by collecting memories of the Pioneers, or information about them.
• perhaps send each person an outline to respond to as an electronic interview?
• we want their concepts of what was happening, what they each contributed, other names we should include.
How do we get ISTE, MECC, other major organizations to share their history and “buy in” to our project? Can Vicki’s organization provide info on the publishers who were Pioneers (Sunburst, MECC, Learning Co., etc.)
Possible Approaches To Living Pioneers
Interview person and ask her/him to identify a theme and then write about it. (Sandy’s opinion is we may get more and better information if we leave it unstructured.)
Questions we might ask in addition to biographical and historical information:
-- What discipline/curriculum area were you in and at what level? (elementary, middle, high school, college, county/state/national administration, business, etc.)
-- Where do you fit into the history of computers/ICT in education/learning?
-- Please review the accompanying list of names and suggest additions from your area of expertise and/or your part of the U.S.
-- Please respond to one or more of these questions.
“What are you interested in NOW?”
“Prediction: What do we see for the future?”
“What are your future hopes/dreams for how ICT can shape education? (crystal balling)”
“What content has been added to/dropped from the curriculum because of ICT?”
“For Pioneers who are no longer living, what anecdotes or other info could you add to their entry in our project?”
Organizations, Meetings, Publications, Etc.
Organizations, associations: CUE, ISTE and its forerunners, MECC, Fla, Tx – inc. founders of the organization and/or in list of Pioneers. Question raised: Where does Bank Street fit in?
Conferences that shaped the future: West Coast Computer Faire, NECC, CUE
Journals: The Computing Teacher, T.H.E. Journal, CUE Newsletter, Educational Technology, Educational Computer (title?)
Early publishing companies: The Learning Company, Davidson, Sunburst, MECC
Early programs that set a high standard (may not use this category?): Bank Street Writer, Oregon Trail
Early programming languages and their developers
Early hardware developers: Apple, Commodore, Atari, Radio Shack, others
2nd West Coast Computer Faire Spring 1978 Sandy on panel with ??? and ???

September 1978 3rd meeting of CUE founders, they named new organization “CUE, or Computer Using Educators”

IDEAS FOR WEBSITE DESIGN
Goal: Present the History of Computing for Learning and Education
Guided tours -- avatar walks user thru exhibit halls

Possible structured approaches via curriculum / grade levels:
Construct a series of curriculum area topics: Computers and science, Computers and music, Computers and literature, Computers and math, etc.
Give an overview of use of ICT / its impact on each curriculum area including history, current practices, hopes for the future in that area.
Grade level approach: impact of ICT at elementary, middle school, high school, college.



TENTATIVE TASK ASSIGNMENTS -- very rough notes. See p. 18 instead.
Enter materials from Ann into her catalog.
Obtain a scanner or send Ann info on buying a OCR scanner. Dave will also help explore this topic. We want a scanner that has high quality OCR capabilities to scan a document and change it into a text file and/or a scannable PDF file.
Internal and external links within website and to other websites.
Work on ways to encourage input from other countries around the world.
Ann added: It would be helpful for you to articulate for the 3 of us how you see this Pioneers/History of Computers in Education project fitting in with your overall goal of a Virtual Museum.

Sandy:
Add to list of names and possibly identify specific persons associated with other state organizations.
Look at home for any articles or other written materials on history of CUE.
Check whether any CUE Board members or other persons have back issues of the Newsletter. Or do you think the current CUE leadership would help us with this? Who do we know well who is still active in CUE?

Ann:
Type up list of names and send to other 3. Everyone will add email addresses and phone numbers that they have for names on list and return list to Ann.t
Type up and distribute notes from meeting.
Work with Vicki to get Texas info, publisher info, other ideas she has.

Dave:
Work with Liza on her “vision paper.”
Join LOOP Center Board and the HCLE Board.
Identify IAE materials relevant to HCLE project.
Brainstorm with Liza on finding funding for project, especially to maintain it for future.


Appendix 4: Unused Leftovers (The Stash)
This Appendix was written by David Moursund.
One of my writing habits is to try out various ideas and paragraphs. Some get used, and some get stashed at the end of the document I am currently writing. Here is my “stash” collection for the current document.
Lud Braun
Lud Braun was a very early Pioneer. Quoting from http://iae-pedia.org/Lud_Braun:
During the period 1967-70, the National Science foundation supported the exploration, by the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, of the uses of digital computers in high school curricula. More than 80 high school teachers and more than 3,000 students in 30 school districts participated in this effort. The experiences gained in this period indicated that simulations were potentially valuable educationally. In order to permit a more detailed exploration of the potentiality, the National Science Foundation funded a two-year effort for the period 1970-72 at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn for the development of simulation materials to support high school curricula in biology, physics, and social studies. This effort was extended an additional two years at the State University of New York.
David Moursund
David Moursund helped teach a summer course at the University of Wisconsin (Madison) for high school students that involved FORTRAN programming and numerical analysis in summer 1963. At Michigan State University, he taught in a summer institute course for precollege teachers in summer 1965 (his numerical analysis course included use of FORTRAN). He began running NSF-supported courses in NSF summer institute programs in summer 1966. His summer institute in 1966 included numerical analysis, FORTRAN programming, and calculus.
Andrew Molnar
Andrew Molnar and the National Science Foundation are Pioneers. Here are three good references and some useful history:
Molnar, Andrew R. “Critical issues in computer-based learning,” Educational Technology, August, 1971.
Molnar, Andrew R. Computer innovations in education, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., January 1972.
Molnar, Andrew (06/01/97). “Computers in education: A brief history.” T.H.E. Journal. Retrieved 6/30/2013 from http://thejournal.com/articles/1997/06/01/computers-in-education-a-brief-history.aspx. Quoting from this reference:
Andrew Molnar is a 21-year member of T.H.E.’s Editorial Board. He received his doctorate in Psychology at the University of Maryland. From 1966 to 1970 Molnar directed programs in higher education research and coordinated the educational technology programs at the U.S. Department of Education. From 1970 to 1995, he was the Program Director for Applications of Advanced Technologies Program in science education at the National Science Foundation.

The history of computers in education has been variously characterized as an "accidental revolution" or "unthinking man and his thinking machines." Others have said that the computer revolution has changed the adage that "necessity is the mother of invention" to "in a computer world, invention is the mother of necessity." However characterized, it is clear that innovators in this field have created some of the most provocative and stimulating ideas in the history of education. What follows is a brief chronological history of some of the more interesting ideas and developments.
Broadly speaking, the two major functions of education are to transmit the culture, values and lessons of the past to the current generation; and to prepare our children for the world in which they will live. Preparing children for the world in which they will live is becoming more difficult than ever. In retrospect, there has been a confluence of changes that have significantly impacted the direction of modern education.

In the late 1960s, in order to make access to computers widely available, the National Science Foundation (NSF) supported the development of 30 regional computing networks, which included 300 institutions of higher education and some secondary schools. By 1974, over two million students used computers in their classes. In 1963, only 1% of the nation’s secondary schools used computers for instructional purposes. By 1975, 55% of the schools had access and 23% were using computers primarily for instruction.[13]
… Continuing the quote:
James Kulik
James Kulik at the University of Michigan performed a meta-analysis on several hundred well-controlled studies in a wide variety of fields at the elementary, secondary, higher- and adult-education level. He found that computer-based education could increase scores from 10 to 20 percentile points and reduce time necessary to achieve goals by one-third. He found that computers improved class performance by about one-half a standard deviation, less than the one sigma difference that could be accomplished by peer tutoring.[14] However, this analysis did not include newer studies utilizing advanced technologies and newer educational paradigms. But, this study did answer the question: do computer-based technologies work? They most certainly do.
Question from Dave Moursund: Should this “pioneering” meta-analysis research work of James Kulik be considered as pioneering? If so, we should add his name to the list of Pioneers?
Keith Acheson
Keith Acheson is currently on the list of Pioneers. He was a math educator in the College of Education at the University of Oregon when I approached him with the following proposal in 1971. (Note: This is not an exact quote.)
We have had a Computer Science Department for two years. I am Head of the department. We formed the department by splitting off from the mathematics department. We have brought with us from the math department the master’s degree in math education, so we now offer a master’s degree in computers in education. This is the second such program developed in this country. (Illinois Institute of Technology developed the first.) We have ridden on the math department coattails to develop a bachelor’s degree in computer science.
We now have students who want to do a doctorate in the field of computers in education. I assume that we can do that by riding on the coattails of the current doctorate program in math education in the College of Education.
Keith’s answer was yes, of course, and he worked with me to create this country’s (probably the world’s) first doctorate program in the field of computers in education. Previously Keith had done Pioneering work in use of VCRs in research at Stanford. He used one of the first VCRs in his doctoral dissertation work on clinical supervision of teachers.
The first student in the University of Oregon’s computers in education program (Mike Neill, a Junior High School science teacher) was admitted to the program in 1971.He graduated in 1977, and his dissertation title is An Empirical Method of Identifying Instructional Objectives for a High School Computer Literacy Curriculum. The first doctoral graduate was Mike Dunlap, in 1975. His dissertation title is A Preliminary Analysis of Component Skills in Introductory FORTRAN Programming. I eventually was the major professor or co-major professor of 76 students who earned the Ph.D. in this program. Some other students also completed the program, but I was not their major professor. See the complete list of these 76 students and my 6 doctoral students in mathematics at http://genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu/id.php?id=8415.
Bob Albrecht
I spent considerable time talking with Bob Albrecht in a meeting with him a few weeks after the June 24th meeting. The IAE-pedia has quite a bit of information about Albrecht. See http://iae-pedia.org/Robert_Albrecht.
Bob has worked in the field of computing in education for about 50 years, and he is still quite active. He personally knows a great many of the Pioneers and has participated in many pioneering projects. He has not collected many artifacts. However, he indicated that he has all but one issue of the five years of the People’s Computing Company publication.
In my (Dave’s) conversation with Bob, we discussed whether teachers would have any interest in the project and/or whether teachers would be willing to spend any of their valuable classroom teaching time introducing their students to various aspects of the history of computing in education. Bob argued both that the curriculum is full and that CCSS assessment and other assessment means that most teachers are focusing on using their instruction time on topics that will contribute to improved test scores for students.
Robotics and Current Graphics-Oriented Programming for Students
On a personal note, in recent years I have visited various children’s museums and entertainment centers. I have observed and talked with a number of children as they play games and make other use of ICT. My observation is that HCLE is a long way from being an important topic in their minds.
However, the success of the robotics clubs and of graphics-languages computer programming provide a powerful argument against my observations. See http://iae-pedia.org/Robotics_and_Education, http://scratch.mit.edu/, and http://blogs.kqed.org/mindshift/2011/05/5-tools-to-introduce-programming-to-kids/. There is a long history of involving K-12 students in fun and educationally sound computing projects. We can learn a lot from this history and the two above-mentioned great success stories.
Computer Literacy
Andrew Molnar of the National Science foundation was another very early Pioneer. Quoting from “Computer Literacy, a Sampling of Definitions” :
COMPUTER LITERACY: Basic skill in use of computers, from the perspective of such skill being a necessary societal skill.
The term was coined by Andrew Molnar, while director of the Office of Computing Activities at the National Science Foundation.
"We started computer literacy in '72 [...] We coined that phrase. It's sort of ironic. Nobody knows what computer literacy is. Nobody can define it. And the reason we selected [it] was because nobody could define it, and [...] it was a broad enough term that you could get all of these programs together under one roof" (cited in Aspray, W., (September 25, 1991) "Interview with Andrew Molnar," OH 234. Center for the History of Information Processing, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota).
The term computer literacy is also ascribed to Art Luehrmann and to the Conference Board of Mathematical Sciences who used it in 1972. See some early history at http://iae-pedia.org/Computer_Literacy_in_1972. Thus, we come up with the name Art Luehrmann as a Pioneer and the organization Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences. We are led to the deeper task of exploring roles of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in HCLE.
State and Federal Initiatives
There have been a number of large state-funded and federal government-funded initiatives. The Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers to use Technology (PTTT) project run by the Department of Education is an excellent example. See the proposal written by David Moursund at http://pages.uoregon.edu/moursund/UO_PTTT_2000-03/pttt_grant_proposal.htm.
K-12 Software Development and Evaluation
A major aspect of computing in education is the educational software developed for K-12 instructional use. A big piece briefly touched on in this document so far is the evaluation of this software:
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (developed first evaluation criteria). 1st work in this area?
MicroSIFT at Northwest Labs (national funding?). 2nd or 3rd work in this area.
EPIE (private funding?), 2nd or 3rd work in this area.
California Software Clearinghouse, 4th work in this area.
California’s Microcomputer Center at the San Mateo County Office of Education became the state-funded California Instructional Software Clearinghouse while the Stanislaus County Office became the state-funded California Instructional Video Clearinghouse – and these eventually merged to become the California Instructional Technology Clearinghouse. Each of these developed and published successive editions of evaluation criteria that were adopted be many other states – and published lists of highly recommended technology resources. Title? (Something like … California Criteria for the Evaluation of Instructional Technology Resources ???)
Note: Locate and describe similar projects in other states.
The Educational Software Evaluation Consortium, created by the California Instructional Software Clearinghouse in 197?, eventually had 20+ collaborating members from other states and large districts – the group met annually to create the Educational Software Preview Guide that was then distributed in their areas and published by The Computing Teacher, the CUE Newsletter, and other state members of the Consortium.
Each state/district used its own evaluation criteria. These were translated into “Exemplary,” “Desirable,” “Satisfactory,” and “Unsatisfactory” for purposes of the publication. Only the Exemplary and Desirable programs were included in the annual Educational Software Preview Guide. What were the criteria of excellence and which companies received the highest ratings (or is this relevant today?)
What were the other major “lists” of quality software similar to The Educational Software Preview Guide? EPIE? MicroSIFT? Other state evaluation projects?
What journals published reputable software reviews/evaluations?
At what point did states (and which states) begin to include educational software in addition to textbooks as part of their lists of state-approved/adopted/recommended curriculum materials?
When and how did the concept of “educational software” expand to include interactive videodiscs, electronic periodicals on CD-ROM, and eventually the DVD that replaced the interactive videodisc? And also all the software and electronic information now available on the Internet?
What organizations/institutions/states, if any, are currently evaluating these materials today? For one possible answer, see New Ed Tech Guide below.
Possible Types of Projects
1. Narrative videos that include visuals of historical artifacts, one or more interviews, and voice over done by a professional following a tightly written script. Examples might include a classroom of kids packed into a computer lab, with old computers. A cart of laptops. A classroom in which all student shavr a tablet computer. Kids using smart phones to access information and to communicate. From my conversation with Gippo Gianfilippo (My youngest daughter’s husband, who is a movie producer), I conclude that relatively high quality videos of this sort might be produced for roughly $1,000 per minute of length.
Another example would be calculators, going way back to the first electronic desk calculators (not handheld, desk) 4-function calculators that could add, subtract, multiply, and divide, and following a timeline up to current multifunction, hand held, graphical calculators. We might be able to get TI to fund such a video if we include or perhaps feature their equipment. Also, we should search for such videos from other companies and other sources, and somehow include the ones we find. We should contact companies for their old relevant videos.
2. Develop a collection of old software that is running on new computers for kids, teachers, parents to try out. The idea is to display the fun but primitiveness of the old software.
3. Lesson plans for teachers at various grade levels and in various disciplines that draw on historically available materials to teach some of the HCLE of the disciplines.
New Ed Tech Guide
See http://blogs.slj.com/neverendingsearch/2013/07/08/graphite-the-new-educatorconsumer-guide-for-ed-tech-tools/ . Quoting from the Website
Launched by Common Sense Media, the nonprofit known by parents, teachers and librarians for its high quality, nonpartisan reviews and its popular Digital Literacy and Citizenship Curriculum, Graphite promises to be the go-to platform for helping teachers make sense of an exponentially evolving number of digital learning tools.
The site is not only free, it’s also ad-free.
Now in beta, with a full launch planned for August, the goal is to objectively and transparently review and rate educational technologies and to guide busy teachers to the best websites, games, apps and digital curricula that will augment their teaching and to relieve the time-consuming burden of searching, sorting and sifting.
The ISTE panel shared that the vision is for the site to become the Consumer Guide for teachers, with a secret sauce of rigor with a side of reality, and that it plans to create the best possible learning rating system ever–a five-point star system based on the criteria of engagement, pedagogy and supports.
The team of professional educators – early childhood development experts, doctorates in education, and teachers with hands-on classroom chops – rate each website, game, and app based on our detailed rubric that scores each product on 15 dimensions. Plus, we tag each product for subjects, skills, and grade band and map them to Common Core and other state standards. And every product is rigorously reviewed to dig deeper into what and how your students will learn with it.


A Virtual Archive for the History of Artificial Intelligence

Quoting from: Buchanan, Brian G., Eckroth, Joshua, & Smith, Reid G. “A Virtual Archive for the History of AI.” AI Magazine (Summer 2013).

As a scientific society, AAAI has a stated responsibility to disseminate accurate information about AI and promote accurate views of the field. Because historians will construct their stories from the primary source material they can find, it follows that AAAI has a responsibility to help preserve the publications that have defined the field. For this reason, the strategic plan for AAAI (AAAI 2008) includes the clause, “Preserve the history of the field, including such tasks as archiving AI materials.”

The AI Topics website was set up in part to meet these responsibilities (Buchanan and Glick 2001). In addition to being a digital archive, the website also aims to be a broad source of introductory readings, news, podcasts, and videos covering the wide range of topics in our field. All of the linked material has been previously published in reputable outlets and is reviewed by editors. This ensures the integrity of the information that is disseminated. However, we found that much of the older material that helped define the field was previously difficult or impossible to find in digital form. Even in hard copy, some materials could be found only in a few research libraries and personal collections.

Among other things, this article suggests the magnitude of the AI History Task. The box on the article’s second page indicated they have accumulated 150 articles from before 1950!





References and Links

Most of the references and links are embedded in the text. Here are a few additional references.

Buchanan, Brian G., Eckroth, Joshua, & Smith, Reid G. (Summer 2013). “A virtual archive for the history of AI.” AI Magazine.

Butler, Rebecca (January/ February 1998). “Preserving the history of our field: The AECT Archives.” Tech Trends. Retrieved 7/4/2013 from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02818135?LI=true.

David Moursund Editorials (1974-2001). Retrieved 7/13/2013 from http://iae-pedia.org/David_Moursund_Editorials.

“Draft Wikipedia article about David Moursund.” See http://iae-pedia.org/index.php?title=Draft_Wikipedia_Entry_About_David_Moursund&action=edit.

IAE (n.d.). Information Age Education. Retrieved 7/13/2013 from http://iae-pedia.org/Main_Page.

Sarason, S. (1990). The predictable failure of educational reform: Can we change course before it's too late? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Wikipedia (n.d.). “Educational software.” Retrieved 7/4/2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educational_software.